LNG = LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS
Natural gas mainly in the form of Methane, after being extracted from gas fields, will be processed in a gas processing plant where its impurities such as CO2, Water & Sulfur will be removed. Now it is time to transport the gas to the end users for distribution. Eventually, either a gas pipeline will be used or Natural gas gets liquefied at cryogenic temperature of -265°F (-160°C). When natural gas is turned into LNG, its volume shrinks by factor of 600. This reduction in volume enables the gas to be transported economically over long distances.
LNG EXPORT TERMINAL (LIQUEFACTION)
Refrigeration process is the core of an LNG plant in which natural gas is cooled and liquefied to –160°C or less using the principle of refrigeration. Because gas is cooled and liquefied to an extremely-low temperature during the process, an enormous amount of energy is consumed. How much this energy can be reduced is important, so various ingenious processes are used. Such as C3-MR, AP-X, Cascade, DMR & SMR. The refrigeration process happens in multiple steps and requires various heat exchanger types and compressor systems.
LNG IMPORT TERMINAL (REGASIFICATION)
LNG will be shipped to destination port. In order to be used as Natural gas again it has to get vaporized (re-gasified). There are various Heat Exchangers (vaporizers) used to vaporize the LNG. Depending on the vaporizer type, Seawater, Ambient Air, Propane or burnt LNG is used to vaporize the LNG. We have specialized welding solutions for fabrication of regasification plant components.
LNG as fuel has seasonality, in some export terminals there is a peak shaving facility to store the LNG for most of the year and export it at the most demanding season of the year.
FLOATING LNG (FLNG)
Floating LNG is a floating Offshore unit which has the capability of liquefaction or regasification of Natural gas right at the Offshore topside. LNG FPSO refers to LNG Floating Production Storage and Offloading Unit which does the gas processing and liquefaction.
Floating LNG can also be regasification units. Instead of investing in fix regasification terminals, a floating unit can travel to the end destination to regasify the LNG. It is called FSRU referring to Floating Storage & Regasification Unit.
In order to transport LNG from liquefaction or peak shaving terminal to an end user location, LNG carriers are needed. There are also ships which sail with LNG as fuel. All such carriers require special materials, insulation and welding solutions. We offer total welding solutions for all LNG carrier types.
FULL CONTAINMENT HAS BECOME THE MOST COMMONLY BUILT LNG TANK TYPE DUE TO ITS SAFETY AND ECONOMIC VALUE
The inner tank is made of 9% Nickel steel and the outer tank is made of prestressed concrete (PC). Between the inner and outer tank there is a vapor barrier made of thin carbon steel plate and many different types of insulations.
9% Nickel vertical joints are welded in vertical up. For this reason either SMAW electrode is applied manually or FCW for semi-automatically and fully automatic welding.
FOR VERTICAL JOINTS SMAW AND FCAW ARE THE DOMINANT PROCESSES
For manual process Nyloid 2 has been used for decades in many projects worldwide as the electrode of choice and Supercore 625P FCW is proven to offer the best combination of excellent weldability and mechanical properties.